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Another great article by yourdogadvisor.com.

Liver Disease in Dogs: Causes, Complications and Treatments 1

Owning a dog with liver disease can be challenging. I know this for certain because my dog, Joey, a 13-year-old shih tzu, was diagnosed with a rare  form of liver disease about three years ago. In his case, we found the problem quite by accident. During an exam for an unrelated issue, my vet found lesions on Joeys spleen, which subsequently had to be removed. During that operation, the vet noticed that Joey’s liver looked “odd.” He took a biopsy, which came back positive for copper storage disease.

Liver Disease in Dogs: Causes, Complications and Treatments 2
My dog Joey, who, at 13,  is still happy and doing well despite having liver disease. 

That said, my and Joey’s situation was definitely atypical. Most cases of liver disease in dogs are diagnosed after symptoms appear. And since many of those symptoms are subtle, the dog may have advanced liver disease before a diagnosis is made. That’s why it’s so important for dog owners to know if their dog is at risk for liver problems and to be vigilant about spotting the signs.

Signs of Liver Disease in Dogs

The liver is a complex organ that performs many vital functions. So when it isn’t working properly, your dog may develop a variety of symptoms ranging from minor to very severe. Depending on the underlying cause (I’ll talk more about those later) they may come on suddenly or develop slowly over time.

Since there are many symptoms of liver disease, it can be helpful to look at them in the context of the functions the liver normally performs.

No. 1. Gastrointestinal Symptoms

The liver produces bile acids, which are necessary for the digestion of food, particularly fat. If this function is compromised by liver disease, your dog may have a variety of gastrointestinal symptoms. According to PetMD, these include:

  • Poor appetite
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Weight loss
  • Excessive thirst

Liver Disease in Dogs: Causes, Complications and Treatments 3
A poor appetite, tiredness and vomiting and/or diarrhea may be the first sign that your dog has liver disease. 

No. 2 Jaundice

The liver is also responsible for the excretion of bilirubin — a normal by-product of the breakdown of red blood cells. If the liver isn’t working properly, this yellow-tinged pigment accumulates in the body, which can give the whites of the eyes, the gums and other mucus membranes a yellow tinge. This is known as jaundice.

Excess bilirubin may also turn your dog’s urine very dark.

No. 3 Abnormal Bleeding

Another function of the liver is to produce proteins that help the blood to clot. If these proteins aren’t present in sufficient numbers, bleeding can occur. According to PetMD, signs of abnormal bleeding include:

  • Very dark stools
  • Red blood in the stool
  • Blood in the urine
  • Vomiting blood
  • Bleeding gums
  • Sudden bruising

No. 4. Ascites

Ascites is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity. In liver disease, ascites is typically caused by a combination of abnormalities, including increased blood pressure within the liver itself and low levels of certain proteins. Dogs with ascites usually have a large, firm, distended abdomen, which may even interfere with breathing if it’s severe.

No 5. Neurological Problems

The liver is responsible for detoxifying the blood and preventing a variety of harmful substances from reaching other organs of the body. When this function is compromised, a condition known as hepatic encephalopathy (HE) may occur. Although the underlying mechanism isn’t well understood, the syndrome is probably related at least in part to the accumulation of ammonia — a byproduct of protein metabolism — in the blood. The symptoms of hepatic encephalopathy can be mild or severe, and include:

  • Mental dullness, failure to follow commands
  • Lethargy, fatigue
  • Confusion
  • Abnormal gait
  • Personality changes
  • Disorientation
  • Aggressive behavior
  • Seizures
  • Coma

Liver Disease in Dogs: Causes, Complications and Treatments 4
A dog with hepatic encephalopathy may appear confused, wary or aggressive. 

No. 6. Infections

The liver plays an important role in a dog’s immune system, so dogs with liver disease can get serious bacterial infections quite easily. Signs of infection may be difficult to detect in a dog who is already ill, but may include:

  • Fever
  • Poor appetite
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Excess tiredness

Causes and Risk Factors

Any dog can develop liver disease. However, certain factors may put your dog at increased risk.  These can be congenital (the dog is born with the problem) acquired (for example, an infection or exposure to a toxin) or related to another disease. Let’s take a look at each of these categories one by one.

Congenital and Hereditary Factors

Congenital liver problems are usually referred to as “inborn.” That is, the dog is born with a defect  that causes problems to develop, either early on or later in their lives. Additionally, some hereditary factors predispose certain breeds of dog to liver disease.

Here’s a rundown on a few of the most common congenital and hereditary issues you may encounter in your dog.

Congenital Portosystemic Shunt

The most common liver issue in young dogs is a congenital defect known as a portosystemic shunt. According to the Merck Manual of Veterinary Medicine, a healthy dog’s liver filters blood coming from the intestines, which prevents toxins and other harmful substances from entering the bloodstream. But in dogs with a portosystemic shunt, blood bypasses the liver via one or more abnormal blood vessels, sending unfiltered blood throughout the body. This results in a variety of symptoms, such as stunted growth and neurologic problems, including disorientation and seizures. In advanced cases, the dog may also develop ascites.

Congenital portosystemic shunt is not hereditary. But it is more common in certain breeds of dog. These include:

Liver Disease in Dogs: Causes, Complications and Treatments 5
German shepherd puppies may have a congenital liver defect known as a portosystemic shunt. 

Copper-associated hepatopathy (Copper storage disease)

Generally an inherited condition, copper storage disease occurs when abnormal amounts of copper accumulate in the liver, causing chronic hepatitis (inflammation) and cirrhosis (scarring). My experience notwithstanding, it is seen most often in specific dog breeds, including Bedlington terriers, West Highland white terriers, Sky terriers, Dalmatians and Doberman pinschers.

Liver Disease in Dogs: Causes, Complications and Treatments 6
Bedlington Terriers are genetically prone to copper storage disease, as are West Highland White Terriers and several other dog breeds. 

Amyloid is a stiff, fibrous protein that can accumulate in various organs and tissues, a condition called amyloidosis. When amyloidosis affects the liver, enlargement of the liver, high liver enzymes, liver failure and/or liver rupture may occur. The disease is often familial and  is seen most often in beagles, foxhounds and Chinese shar peis, says PetMD.

Infections and Toxins

Filtering the blood of toxins and other harmful substances is one of the liver’s most important jobs. To facilitate this, the organ has a rich blood supply. And while that is physiologically beneficial, it also means that anything and everything that enters a dog’s bloodstream goes through the liver, often in an unaltered state.

Medications

A number of medications have the potential to cause liver damage, even those prescribed by your veterinarian. Some of the most common culprits are drugs in the class known as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or NSAIDS, which are often prescribed for joint pain. Although generally safe at prescribed doses, these drugs may be harmful to the liver, especially in dogs with pre-existing liver disease, explains the FDA. If you are giving your dog NSAIDs, watch her carefully for any of the signs and symptoms mentioned above. If any of them occur, stop giving the medication, and call your vet.

Acetaminophen (Tylenol) is another drug that can cause liver damage in your dog. This is typically a dose-dependent reaction, meaning the more of the drug the dog ingests, the more likely liver damage will occur. However, small or young dogs can develop acetaminophen toxicity from a single, relatively small dose, according to Dr. Colleen M. Almgren, DVM, PhD. To keep your dog safe, never give her Tylenol or any drug not prescribed by your vet, and keep all medicines in a safe, secure place.

Poisons and Toxins

There are many natural and man-made substances in the environment that can damage a dog’s liver. According to the Merck Veterinary Manual. some of the most commonly encountered environmental toxins that have the potential to cause liver damage include:

  • Heavy metals, such as lead, mercury and cadmium
  • Herbicides and fungicides
  • Rat or mouse poison
  • Amanita mushrooms (death cap mushrooms)
  • Cycad plants (Sago palms)
  • Blue-green algae
  • Aflatoxin, a substance produced by mold

If you suspect your dog has ingested a toxin of any kind, call your veterinarian at once. If your vet can’t be reached immediately, call your local poison control center or the Pet Poison Helpline any time day or night at 800-213-6680.

Liver Disease in Dogs: Causes, Complications and Treatments 7
Amanita phalloides, or death cap mushrooms, are highly toxic to dogs

Infections

Almost any type of organism can take up residence in the liver, including bacteria, viruses and fungi. The most common infections that may cause lasting and even life-threatening liver damage are listed below.

  • Infectious canine hepatitis.

Caused by a virus known as adenovirus CAV-1, canine infectious hepatitis starts in the upper respiratory tract and makes its way to the liver via the blood, says PetMD. Once there, it replicates and begins to damage liver cells.

Most dogs who become infected with canine infectious hepatitis mount an immune response to the virus and improve in several weeks. However, some dogs will develop chronic inflammation and scarring of the liver, which can have more serious consequences. They may also experience damage to the kidneys and the eyes.

Fortunately, canine infectious hepatitis is preventable with a vaccine.

  • Leptospirosis

Leptospirosis is a bacterial infection caused by the organism Leptospira interrogans. Dogs often contract the infection by drinking water from contaminated sources, according to PetMD. The disease is treatable with antibiotics and supportive care. However, permanent liver and kidney damage may occur.

vaccine is available to prevent leptospirosis, but it is not recommended for every dog. Speak with your veterinarian about whether your dog is at risk of contracting the illness and whether or not vaccination is advisable.

  • Histoplasmosis and Coccidioidomycosis

Both histoplasmosis and coccidioidomycosis are fungal infections that can severely damage the livers of dogs. According to the Merck Veterinary Manual, symptoms include an enlarged liver and fluid buildup in the abdomen. The dog’s eyes and gums may be also be jaundiced (yellow-tinged.)

Treatment of both infections usually involves a course of antifungal drugs. However, the outlook for recovery from histoplasmosis is poor. Coccidioidomycosis may be treated successfully with very long-term administration of antifungal therapy, but relapse is common. Some dogs must take antifungal medication for life.

  • Toxoplasmosis

Although often associated with cats, toxoplasmosis can infect dogs as well, causing rapid destruction of liver cells. Caused by the parasite toxoplasma gondii, the infection usually affects young dogs or dogs whose immune system is not working well. According to the Merck Veterinary Manual, symptoms include fever, vomiting, diarrhea and low energy. Signs of acute liver failure, such as jaundice and ascites, can also occur.

Endocrine Diseases

Some endocrine disorders predispose dogs to developing liver disease. According to the Merck Veterinary Manual, the most common of these are Cushing disease, diabetes, and hyperthyroidism. If your vet has diagnosed your dog with any of these disorders, it’s important to be vigilant for any signs of liver disease.

Liver Cancer

Just like their human counterparts, dogs can develop cancer in many organs of the body, including the liver. Primary liver cancers (cancers originating in the liver) are usually hepatocellular carcinoma, a malignant tumor that originates in the tissue that lines the liver, explains PetMD. If the tumor is localized to one lobe of the liver, it can often be surgically removed. Sadly, however, the likelihood that the cancer has spread by the time surgery is performed is quite high, and many dogs succumb to the disease within several months.

Treating Liver Disease: What You Can Do

Obviously, liver disease in dogs is multifaceted problem, and medical treatment will depend on the underlying cause. In some cases, such as that of a young dog with a portosystemic shunt, surgery can correct the defect and your dog can go on to lead a long, healthy life. But for many dogs, inflammation and scarring from the underlying disease process leads to chronic, long term liver dysfunction. These dogs will need ongoing support from you and your vet in order to live their best lives.

Diet

Diet is of paramount importance for dogs with liver disease. Whether the illness is acute (short term) or chronic, your dog needs sufficient calories to maintain their weight while the liver tries to repair itself. (Yes, liver cells can regenerate!) This can be challenging, since your dog may have a poor appetite and vomit after he eats. He may also have diarrhea, which means he will have a harder time absorbing the nutrients in his food. Offer him small meals frequently throughout the day, and try hand-feeding him if his dietary intake is poor.

Your veterinarian may recommend a special diet, especially if your dog has hepatic encephalopathy. Most of these “veterinary diets” contain limited amounts of protein in order to minimize the amount of ammonia entering the blood. You should know, however, that limiting protein in the diets of dogs with liver dysfunction is controversial, and may not be appropriate for your dog. According to guidance from U.C. Davis Veterinary School, the need for dietary protein may actually be increased in many dogs with liver disease.

Liver Disease in Dogs: Causes, Complications and Treatments 8
Eggs may be an option to add an appropriate amount of protein to the diet of a dog with hepatic encephalopathy. 

Switching to a vegetarian diet with eggs and cheese as the primary protein source may be a good option for a dog with HE, since evidence shows that neurological symptoms tend to worsen after a meat-based meal. That said, always speak with your vet before changing your dog’s diet, and consult a pet nutritionist if you need additional guidance about meeting your dog’s nutritional needs.

Diets for Copper Storage Disease

If your dog has copper storage disease, limiting his copper intake can help prevent further liver damage and oxidative stress. This, too, can be challenging, since most commercially prepared dog foods add supplemental copper, and copper is also present in significant amounts in certain dog-food ingredients, such as salmon, lamb, whole grains and legumes. At the same time, currently available commercially prepared veterinary diets for dogs with liver disease contain very little protein, so they may not be the best choice for your dog. To solve this dilemma, I’ve chosen to feed Joey a homemade diet made with low-copper ingredients, limited fat and adequate amounts of protein. But make sure you speak with your vet before taking this route.

Supplements

Many veterinarians recommend dietary supplements for dogs with liver disease. These include antioxidants such as vitamin E and vitamin C, S-adenosyl-methonine (SAMe) and silymarin (milk thistle.) On the advice of my vet, Joey takes Denamarin, which contains both SAMe and silymarin. He also takes a zinc supplement, which the vet believes may help to reduce the amount of copper in his liver by slowing down copper absorption from his gut. I also give him MCT oil (medium-chain triglycerides), because there is some evidence that it helps to protect the liver from further injury. 

Liver Disease in Dogs: Causes, Complications and Treatments 9
Silamarin, a supplement that may help dogs with liver disease,  is made from the milk thistle plant.

Rest and Exercise

If your dog has active liver disease, she probably will not have the same amount of energy she had before she was ill. Liver disease in and of itself can cause your dog to be more tired, and poor nutrition due to gastrointestinal symptoms can sap her energy as well. Abdominal distention from ascites may make it harder for your dog to breathe, causing her exercise tolerance to drop. And, of course, if your dog has a fever, she will need more rest.

Pay attention to cues from your dog as to how much exercise she can tolerate at any given time.  If she seems eager to go for a walk, by all means take her, but make it a shorter walk than the walks she took before she became ill. If she seems tired and listless, let her stay indoors except for potty breaks. Joey has good days and bad days, and I’m sure your dog will too.

Conclusion

As you can see from the above, liver disease in dogs is a complex problem with many underlying causes, some of which are easily treatable but many of which are not. Chronic liver problems are common following infections, the ingestion of toxins, or as a result of hereditary defects that doctors don’t fully understand. The important thing for you to remember, however, is that a dog with liver disease can lead a happy, fulfilling life with the right medical care, and lots of love and support from you.

Another great article from  

How to Train Your Dog to Roll Over on Command 1

Roll over is a classic doggy trick that serves little function but to entertain adoring owners. But don’t let the cuteness of this command trick you into thinking its an easy one to train.

Roll over is a complex command, meaning it takes multiple steps for your dog to understand what the full behavior looks like. And then even more steps to train them to do it based on a single cue. But that doesn’t mean your pooch can’t master the roll over. With a little dedication, some creativity, and an understanding of different trick training methods, you’ll have your dog rolling across the floor in no time.

Teaching Complex Behaviors

Remember back to your dog’s first days of training. The first command you probably ever taught them was sit. While every new command is a struggle for a young puppy or a new dog who isn’t familiar with listening to their human counterparts, sit is one of the most straight forward commands a dog will learn.

It involves only one movement: dropping their bum to the floor. On the opposite end of the trick training spectrum are more complex behaviors. Ones that require multiple movements to complete the trick. Roll over, for instance, requires your dog to lay down, drop to their side, roll onto their back, roll onto their other side, and then get up again.

If you try to teach this complex behavior as one fluid movement, your dog will probably give up before they learn the trick. Instead, you have to break the behavior up, rewarding each piece and then building on it as your dog understands what is being reinforced.

How to Train Your Dog to Roll Over on Command 2

Teaching your dog to sit is fairly straightforward. But teaching your dog to run over and sit in a chair on command takes an understanding of more complex training techniques.

But how do you get your dog to perform these behaviors, in full or in part?

For the majority of complex behavior training, you are going to use a combination of luring and shaping. For very specialized behaviors or for dogs that struggle with luring, you may even have to resort to catching. Understanding how to use each of these techniques properly is key to training your dog any multi-stage trick.

Luring

Luring is probably something you’re already familiar with, even if you didn’t realize it. This is simply the act of manipulating your dog’s movements by enticing them to follow a treat or toy. The easiest way to teach your dog to sit is to place a treat in front of their nose and move it up slowly, which causes their rump to drop to the floor as they try to follow the treat with their nose.

This is luring. And this same technique can be used to get your dog to move in all sorts of interesting ways. You can use it to train anything from a leashless heel to running through weave poles on an agility course.

But the key with luring, no matter the trick, is to do it in short bursts. If you try to lure your dog through the entire stand of weave poles the first time around, your dog is going to lose interest in following the treat before you finish. Instead, you need to lure them through one set of poles and then reward them. Once they understand that piece of the behavior, then you can lure them through one set of poles and back through the next. And then reward them for that.

By building up pieces of the behavior in this way, you keep your dog interested. And the more frequent rewards keep their confidence up so they’ll keep trying to finish the behavior, no matter how complex.

How to Train Your Dog to Roll Over on Command 3

Like a horse following a carrot, luring involves using an enticing treat or toy to get your dog to move in a certain way.

A similar technique to luring is targeting. To use targeting to teach your dog new behaviors, you first have to teach them to touch your hand or a target stick with their nose. You can then use your hand or target stick to manipulate their movements just as you would with a treat lure. One benefit of targeting is you can teach your dog to touch your hand or the stick with different parts of their body, like their paw, or even their hip. This makes it even easier to get them to move in the way that you need.

Shaping

Shaping is another useful training technique, especially for complex behaviors. Shaping often comes into play after you have set up the basic behavior using luring or targeting. Once your dog will perform an approximation of a trick, you can shape it into what you want by selectively rewarding the attempts that most closely resemble the final product.

For instance, if I want my dog to wave, I would use targeting to get my dog to lift her paw when I raise my hand. At first, that behavior will be very brief: she’ll lift her paw quickly to swat at my hand and then set it back down. Once she is consistently lifting the paw when I give the cue, then I will start shaping it by only rewarding her for lifts that last one full second. Once she is consistently offering one-second lifts, then I will only reward her for lifts that last two seconds. Then I will only reward two-second lifts that are higher than six inches. Then higher than eight inches.

By selectively rewarding closer and closer approximations, I can shape a rough behavior into a polished trick.

How to Train Your Dog to Roll Over on Command 4

Shaping requires you to pay extra close attention as a trainer. You need to be quick to mark any change in behavior, no matter how small, that is a closer approximation of the final behavior you are wanting to train. 

Catching

If you’re trying to train your dog to perform a behavior on command, that you can neither lure nor shape into existence, then you’ll have to rely on catching.

One of the best examples of a behavior you have to teach by catching is training your dog to sneeze on cue. To do this, you would simply wait for your dog to sneeze, and then flood him with praise and treats. After rewarding the behavior when your pet does it naturally, you are increasing the likelihood they’ll do it again.

Now, it will take multiple reps before your dog realizes why they are being rewarded. And maybe even longer for them to use the behavior to actively try to get a reward. But eventually, your dog will start offering a sneeze in exchange for a treat. Once this happens, all you have to do is pair it with a cue and continue to reinforce them for doing it.

How to Train Your Dog to Roll Over on Command 5

Teaching your dog to do a natural behavior on cue, such as sneezing or blinking, takes time to train since it can take time to catch the behavior while it happens. Marking a blink is harder than it sounds (and much harder than catching one on camera)!

Obviously, catching can be a time-consuming way to train a trick. But, it may be the only way to get your dog to perform certain behaviors on cue. Some dogs are reluctant to be lured. I’ve come across this phenomenon multiple times when trying to train small dogs how to down on command. In cases like these, catching may be the easiest (and the quickest, believe it or not) way to get results.

>>>Enjoy teaching your dog fun new behaviors? Check out these 8 brilliant commands.

Before You Get Started

Now that you understand the different techniques that go into training a complex behavior like roll over, you are almost ready to get started. But, if your dog doesn’t know how to down consistently on cue, you’ll want to start by teaching or brushing up on that behavior first.

It is possible to lure your dog into a down position and then lure them over onto their side but it adds unnecessary complexity to an already complex trick. Plus, by teaching your dog to lay down first, you’ll have an opportunity to practice your luring skills.

How to Teach Your Dog to Roll Over

Find a quiet space in your house with enough room on the floor for your dog to roll around. You’ll be spending a lot of time on the floor too, so a comfy rug or carpet is a big plus. Load your treat bag with plenty of high-value treats.

You’ll need to use a positive marker to let your dog know when they have moved in the correct way. If your dog is clicker trained, you can use your clicker for this. If not, you can just use a verbal marker like “yes!” or “good dog!”

If your dog is familiar with trick training, you’ll probably be able to train this behavior in one session. If they aren’t familiar or are easily distracted, it may take three or four sessions. If your dog doesn’t easily lure, it may require you to use the catching technique, which could even take weeks! In any case, be patient and move at your dog’s pace.

Step 1: Lure into a side lay

Start by asking your dog to down. Once they are laying, check the position of their rear legs. If they are “lazy laying” you’ll see one leg kicked out to the side of their body. In this case, you’ll need to lure them to roll onto the opposite side. If they are in an upright down with each rear leg folded at their side, then you can lure to either side.

How to Train Your Dog to Roll Over on Command 6

The image on the left shows a dog in a “lazy down.” It would be very difficult for this dog to roll to his left. The image on the right shows a dog in a normal down who can easily roll to either side.

Take a treat in your dominant hand and put it up to your dog’s nose. They can lick at it, but don’t let them get it. Slowly move your hand around toward the side of their ribcage. If you want your dog to roll to the left, you’ll move your hand to the right and vice versa.

Your dog’s nose should follow your hand until their neck is bent all the way around. At this point, move your hand up toward their spine slightly. This should cause your dog to fall onto their side. The moment their side hits the ground, use your positive marker, give your dog the treat, and praise them.

TIP: If your dog struggles to follow your lure, try moving slower or keeping your hand farther from their body as you move it back. If they still struggle, try a higher value treat. You may also have to play with the positioning to get your dog to roll onto their side. Don’t be afraid to get creative.

>>>If your dog struggles during training, you may be making one of these common training mistakes.

After you reward your dog, entice them into a stand then ask them to down again and repeat the process. Lure your dog onto the same side you did during the first rep. If your dog “lazy downs” with their legs on the side they need to roll to, get them up and ask for a down again. You may even have to lure them to get them to fold their legs back under themselves.

Continue luring your dog onto their side until they easily plop over without having to follow the full lure.

How to Train Your Dog to Roll Over on Command 7

Keep practicing luring your dog onto their side until they will easily move into the position without having to follow your lure. If they move into the position faster than your hand moves, this is a good indication they are ready for the next step. 

Step 2: Lure onto the back

Once your dog seems to understand that they are being rewarded for moving onto their side, we are going to start asking them to do a little more before they are rewarded.

Put your dog in a down and then lure them onto their side as you did before. Then keep luring them to move onto their back by moving the treat from the center of their ribs toward their back. Keep your hand and the treat parallel with the ground as you move it.

TIP: Make sure to move your hand slowly so your dog’s nose stays with it. If your dog flips their head around and rolls back onto their stomach, you’ll have to adjust your lure. Try moving your hand higher up so they can follow it easier with their nose. Or move your hand closer to their head so their neck isn’t bent as far.

Adjust your lure as needed to coax your dog to roll onto their back. Once they do, use your positive marker and reward them.

Repeat the above process until your dog will easily move from a down onto their back.

If your dog happens to roll off their back by completing a full roll over give them extra praise and an additional reward. If they only roll off their back the direction they came, that’s fine too. We’ll focus on getting them to roll the opposite way in the next step.

How to Train Your Dog to Roll Over on Command 8

By breaking the roll over into steps and then building them on top of each other one at a time, you can create a more polished end behavior. 

Step 3: Lure onto opposite side

Start with your dog in a down and lure them onto their back as you did before. This time, do not give them the treat once they are on their back.

Instead, continue to lure them to flop onto their opposite side by moving your hand from directly above their nose in an arch toward the ground. Wait until your dog’s entire side, not just their head, turns and rolls onto the floor.

Once their side hits the floor, use your positive marker and reward them.

Repeat this full process until your dog will easily move from a down and roll all the way on to their opposite side.

In this video, you’ll see how to start training the roll over command by luring your dog onto their side, then their back, and finally over onto their opposite side.

Step 4: Reduce the lure

Eventually, you’ll want your dog to be able to perform a roll over just by you saying the cue. But to get to this point, you first have to wean your dog off the lures you used to build the behavior.

The first thing we are going to do is get rid of the extra down command. With your dog standing in front of you, lure them into a down. Because you have been doing the same sequence of behaviors for multiple reps now, they should easily plop into a down without much luring.

Then start your lure to get them to roll as you did before. But this time, once your dog is on their back and starting to roll onto the opposite side, stop luring and stand up. Your dog should complete the roll and jump up looking for their treat. Mark the behavior and reward them.

TIP: If your dog rolls back the opposite way and gets up, don’t reward them. Try the above steps again, but this time lure them a little farther onto their opposite side before getting up. If they are already moving in that direction before you stop luring, they should have no problem finishing the roll on their own.

Repeat that sequence a until your dog completes the behavior correctly multiple times in a row. Then, lure them through down and onto their side again, but this time stop luring and stand up as your dog is moving from their side onto their back.

If they complete the roll, reward them. If not, lure a little farther before standing up and then work to reduce that lure with each rep.

How to Train Your Dog to Roll Over on Command 9

As you reduce your lures, keep in mind that your dog has been watching more than your hands for cues of what to do. How you lean down, kneel, or sit also needs to be reduced incrementally. If you go from sitting while teaching roll over to suddenly standing, your dog is likely to get confused.

By only rewarding your dog when they complete the full roll, you are shaping the behavior into a polished trick. Using the shaping technique helps you get rid of your lure.

>>>Enjoy the challenge of shaping behaviors? You’ll love teaching your dog the place command.

Step 5: Introduce the cue

Once your dog will easily roll over when lured into a down and onto their side, you are ready to add a cue.

We’ll call this behavior “roll over” but you can name it whatever you would like. Just keep the cue consistent. We’ll also build a hand cue for this command out of our remaining lure, but for now, we will focus on the verbal cue.

This time, before you lure your dog into a down, say “roll over!” in an excited tone. Lure your dog only as much as needed and then praise and reward them once they complete the roll.

Repeat this process over and over. We want our dogs to learn to associate the word “roll over” with the behavior they have been doing. Associations like this take time to build, so be sure to do a couple dozen reps with the new cue before moving on.

How to Train Your Dog to Roll Over on Command 10

In an attempt to get their reward faster, your dog might try to roll onto their back then quickly flip back the same way and jump up. Make sure you only reward them for completing the full roll.

Step 6: Remove remaining lures

Once your dog has made an association between rolling over and the word “roll over” then you are ready to get rid of the remaining lures.

This can be tough for many dogs, especially if you’ve moved too fast through any of the previous steps. If your dog gets confused and stops performing the roll at any point, back up a few steps and try again.

With your dog standing in front of you, say “roll over” and move your hand with a treat quickly from their nose toward the ground. But this time, only bend over yourself, don’t kneel. Once your dog has downed, quickly move your hand in a large circle near their head in a less exaggerated lure than what you were doing before.

If your dog completes the roll over, praise and reward them. If not, try again but move more slowly.

During the next rep, repeat the same process, but this time do not hold a treat in your hand. Your hand will still be used to guide your dog in the right direction, but they’ll be following it for guidance, not to try to get a treat.

Repeat this process until you have a few successes in a row.

From that point, continue making your lures less exaggerated and using only an empty hand. In addition to reducing your hand movements, you also need to bend over less and less each time.

Work at this until you are able to give your roll over command, make a small circle in the air with you hand while standing up straight, and have your dog perform the full roll over.

In this video, you’ll see how to reduce your lures, introduce a verbal cue, and transform your remaining lures into a simple hand cue.

Troubleshooting the Roll Over Command

As I mentioned above, luring doesn’t work for all dogs. If your dog struggles to follow the lure, and upping the value of the treats doesn’t work, you may have to try a different technique.

Catching the behavior and reinforcing your dog for doing it is the next best approach. But this doesn’t mean you have to wait around all day for your dog to happen to roll over. You can try different things to increase the odds that your dog will roll over on their own.

For instance, many dogs like to roll on their backs on the grass or after swimming or getting back from a long walk. Consider when your dog typically rolls and try to create that situation. Once your dog rolls onto their back, use your positive marker and reward them. Repeat the process as many times as your can.

>>>Rolling in the grass isn’t the only quirky behavior many dogs do. Find out why dogs howl.

Once your dog understands what they are being rewarded for, they should start rolling intentionally to earn a treat. At this point, you can start shaping the behavior by selectively rewarding only the times your dog rolls from one side to the other. Then shape it further to only reward your dog once they roll all the way over and get up.

How to Train Your Dog to Roll Over on Command 11

Many dogs (apparently not this one!) will only roll over on soft surfaces. If your dog is struggling with this trick, try moving to a carpeted area or putting down an extra rug. 

Trick Training is Fun!

Sound like a lot of work? It shouldn’t be! Trick training is all about having fun with your dog. Unlike normal training commands like sit, stay, and wait, trick training has no serious implications. You should use it as an opportunity to have fun with your dog.

>>>Even serious commands should be taught in a positive way. Learn why punishment training is not the way to get results from your dog.

Not only does working with them in this way provide an opportunity for doggy mental enrichment, but it should also help you learn to better communicate with them. As you teach your dog to roll over, consider how your body language affects them and how you can apply this to your everyday interactions.

If you keep this in mind as you train, not only will you come out of this exercise with a fun new trick to show off, but you’ll also gain a stronger bond with your pooch.

Another Great Article by

As a clinical veterinarian food issues come up with my clients every day. Like so many things in life, there are a lot of choices good and bad to sort through.

Can My Dog Eat This ? What Not To Feed Your Dog

Can My Dog Eat This ? Toxic Foods For Dogs.

Let me throw a little background in here for you. When we are talking about dog food there is one giant difference between us and dogs. We eat a variety of foods to balance our nutrition, dog food is totally balanced. Every piece of kibble or mouthful of pate has the proper nutritional balance.
So every item we add to the diet unbalances it. It’s tough to accept, I know.
We spend our lives learning about food groups and balance and we try to apply this to our dogs, but it doesn’t work.
So all of the non-dog food items should be considered treats, and should be kept in very low proportions, ideally less than ten percent of the total daily calories.

For the FULL STORY, Click here!

Another great article by Jenny Jones.

Homemade Dog Food - How to Make Your Own and Make Sure It is Healthy and Balanced 1

Homemade dog foods are becoming more popular with dog owners.  Often people feel that their dog will be getting a healthier diet and they like having more control over what they are feeding their dog.  It can have its advantages but, if not done correctly, it can actually be harmful to your dog.

Homemade Dog Food - How to Make Your Own and Make Sure It is Healthy and Balanced 2
Homemade dog foods, if done correctly, can take more effort but be worth it for your dog

Getting the Right Balance is Absolutely Crucial

While, if managed appropriately, homemade dog food can work well for many dogs, too many people start feeding this way without getting appropriate advice.  Dogs need a very specific balance of nutrients to ensure that they get everything they need to stay happy and healthy and without the proper knowledge, it can be all to easy for a dog to start to suffer nutrient deficiencies which can lead to long term medical conditions and a loss of body condition.

Seek Advice From a Suitable Qualified Nutritionist or Resource

To make sure that you get the right balance for your dog it is so important that you get advice from a suitably qualified expert.  There are too many websites and individuals out there ready to offer advice on what to feed your dog that are lacking suitable experience and these can be confusing, misleading and damaging.

To ensure that you are feeding your dog an appropriately balanced diet we would always recommend seeking the advice of a fully qualified and certified pet nutritionist.  Your Vet may be able to provide you with details of one they work with, or you could also refer to the American College of Veterinary Nutrition to find someone near you.

Consider the Lifestage of Your Dog

It is extremely important that you also consider the life stage of your dog and you should seek advice in terms of when changes may be required.

Puppies require a diet that will support their active growth.  It is not just about feeding them more while they are growing. They need an appropriate balance of calories, proteins, fats, calcium, and other nutrients to ensure that they do not become ill, underdeveloped or receive too much of anything.  A large breed puppy will require to be fed on a puppy specific diet than a smaller dog will as they take longer to fully mature and they are at particular risk if they receive too much calcium in their diet too.

Senior dogs can sometimes require changes to their diet too.  They may require fewer calories if they are beginning to put on weight if they are more sedentary.  Some elderly dogs can actually start to lose weight as their metabolism changes. Again, this is why it is important to consult with a certified nutritionist to ensure your dog will be getting the nutrient levels and ingredients that could benefit them the most.

Homemade Dog Food - How to Make Your Own and Make Sure It is Healthy and Balanced 3
Puppies need different nutrient levels to adult dogs while they are growing and it is important that any homemade dog food takes account of this

 

Consider Any Medical Requirements

Sometimes a medical condition can mean that a dog benefits from a more specific diet.  Of course, there are lots of prescription diets on the market and sometimes a change to another generally commercially available diet can be enough to support the dog’s condition.

Sometimes, if the requirements to support the condition are complex, the prescription diet is expensive, or the ingredients just don’t work for your dog then a very tailored home cooked diet can be an option.

If this is to support a specific condition it is really important that this is introduced in conjunction with your vet and a qualified nutritionists advice, to make sure that you are not going to be risking aggravating the condition.

Some conditions that often result in a recommendation to change their diet include allergies or intolerances, chronic pancreatitis, kidney disease, heart disease or bladder stones.

Is Raw Or Cooked Better?

Home cooked diets are usually fresh but the meat they use can be either raw or cooked.

Raw food diets are becoming increasingly popular in the dog world.  Their supporters believe that it is feeding as nature intended and that your dog is getting as much of the benefits from the meat as possible.   It is an extremely fast-growing sector of the pet food market.

The critics of this type of feeding argue that there is a greater risk of the dog developing an illness because of the risk of potentially harmful bacteria that would be killed during the cooking process.  This risk can also spread to the owners if their dog licks them. They also cite the fact that there have been no wide scale independent studies done to measure the benefits of raw feeding, whereas many commercial dog foods go through rigorous testing.

Whether you choose to feed raw or cooked is a personal choice.  There are raw foods available that have been pre-prepared to be nutritionally balanced (although you should research the reputation of the company). You should still take advice from a qualified nutritionist when making up your own diet though to make sure you are getting the right balance and quantities when preparing your own raw diet.

If you are giving bones as part of a home cooked diet, it is extremely important that your dog is supervised and that you feed these raw.  Cooked bones can easily splinter and cause internal damage. Even raw bones do carry a risk of causing a blockage too, so care must be taken.

If you live in a household where someone (dog, person or another pet) has a condition affecting their immune system then a raw diet should be avoided for your dog to minimize the risk.

Homemade Dog Food - How to Make Your Own and Make Sure It is Healthy and Balanced 4
Raw feeding is a rapidly growing area in the dog food world but it is important that you do your research and weight up the pros and cons

Should a Home Cooked Diet be Free of Grains?

Grains have become a dirty word in some parts of the dog food community and grain free diets have become the new big thing.  Like any other ingredient, there can be some dogs that do not tolerate particular types of grains well, but this can be said of certain meat types or vegetables too.

Providing you pick a quality grain that is appropriate to feed to dogs and it is part of a balanced diet there are no problems with adding grains to a home cooked diet and they can, in fact, reduce the overall cost of the diet too.

If you are using grains as part of the diet for a carbohydrate source, these should not be given raw.  They need to be cooked for ease of digestibility.

Homemade Dog Food - How to Make Your Own and Make Sure It is Healthy and Balanced 5
Grains have developed an unfair reputation in the dog food world in recent years.  Providing they agree with your dog and they have been cooked, they can be beneficial as part of a balanced diet

Calcium is Crucial

You do need to add a balance of vitamins and minerals to a home cooked diet.  Again a certified nutritionist can advise you on the correct amount and variety.  Calcium is one of the key important additions. Some people believe that adding some yogurt to their dog’s diet will be enough.  Your dog needs a high proportion of calcium and just adding a blob of yogurt is not sufficient.

It is important to ensure they are receiving the right amount and this is generally done by giving it in the form of a supplement.  For those raw feeders that regularly give their dogs raw meaty bones, then they will also be getting a better amount of calcium in their diet too.

Homemade Dog Food - How to Make Your Own and Make Sure It is Healthy and Balanced 6
Calcium is important in your dog’s diet.  If your dog has raw meaty bones regularly this can provide much of the calcium that they need

What About Supplements?

It is not just calcium that your dog needs though.  There are a number of other vitamins and minerals that should be added to your dog’s diet so that they get the right balance of nutrients.  While they may get some of these through the ingredients you feed, generally, an overall supplement is required to help keep them healthy.

It is not enough to just go and get a standard over the counter multivitamin and mineral.  They need one that is tailored to supplement a home cooked diet.

There are a number of companies that specialize in these types of supplements and BalanceIT have a very good reputation. Their website is also a fantastic resource in terms of what foods are suitable and helping to get a good balance for your dog.

Don’t Forget About Oils

Again a nutritionist will be able to keep you right with the details, but the amount of fat that your dog gets in their diet is also important for helping to keep them happy and healthy.  Fish Oils are often added as they provide additional healthy fats and they also have other beneficial nutritional value too.

Some people think that adding coconut oil will be sufficient.  It is a very on-trend oil at the moment. While it can be a beneficial oil (if care is taken not to give too much as this can cause a stomach upset), it is something that is better used alongside other oils in moderation rather than instead of as it does not have the qualities that fish oils do and it is mostly a form of saturated fat.

Zesty Paws produce a well  regarded Salmon Oil supplement, for example.  It is sustainable sourced and produced in an FDA approved facility..

What Are Some Of The Potential Advantages of Homemade Dog Food

Useful for controlling allergies or intolerances

It can be helpful to use a homemade dog food if your dog has an intolerance or allergy as you can control exactly what your dog is being fed.  You know the exact ingredients and can tailor it based on what will work for your dog. Sometimes an elimination diet may still be required to establish exactly what works for your dog but, once this is established, home cooking can help to ensure your dog does not have a flare up.

See our article on allergies and how to manage them for more general guidance.

It is easier to control the freshness of the ingredients

By feeding a homemade dog food, you are able to have more control over the freshness of what you are giving your dog.  There have been a number of recent scares within the dog food industry that have resulted in recalls for certain brands.  With freshly prepared ingredients you can minimize any risk.

It is easier to ensure that the ingredients are ethical

If you are passionate about living an ethical lifestyle, it can be hard to follow this through when looking at your dog’s diet.  By preparing a homemade dog food you have more control over the ingredients that you are using. It means you can purchase meat that you know is organic, or meets certain welfare standards.

It also means that you can pick things that are sourced sustainably, use environmentally friendly packaging or are grown without the use of pesticides, for example.

See our article on being an ethical dog owner for more general dog product tips.

What Are Some of the Potential Disadvantages of Homemade Dog Foods

Without Expert Advice, the Diet May Not Be Appropriately Balanced

We know we have covered this already but it cannot be overstated.  The KEY thing when feeding a home cooked diet is that you must ensure that your dog is getting the appropriate balance of nutrients.  This is where so many people go wrong. As mentioned before, make sure that you consult with a board certified pet nutritionist or, at the very least, consult an expert website or book that have been produced by one.  While there is a cost associated with a consultation, it will be so worth it for your dog’s health and well being in the long run and of course, it could also save you some potential large vet bills, should your dog become ill because of a deficiency in their diet.

It is Not Generally As Convenient as a Prepared Diet

Preparing a homemade dog food requires a  lot more thought and advanced preparation than purchasing a commercially available dog food.  You need to plan out the ingredients carefully, the preparation of the meals take a lot longer and you usually have to cook up in batches in advance and then freeze them.  You will even need to consider whether you have a suitable freezer!

It can be more difficult if you are holidaying with your dog or if they are staying with family or using a boarding service as you need to be sure they have the facility to store any food you may provide them with pre-made.

For many people though, they believe that given they have this extra hassle when cooking for themselves every day, why wouldn’t they do it for their dog if they believe that it is beneficial.

Homemade Dog Food - How to Make Your Own and Make Sure It is Healthy and Balanced 7
Dry or tinned dog food is much more convenient and easy to use than a home cooked diet

It Can Be More Expensive Than a Prepared Diet

Unless your dog is on one of the most expensive of the commercially prepared diets or a specialist prescription diet, then homemade dog foods do tend to be more expensive.  As long as you are aware of this and budget for it upfront, then this is about personal choice. Some people do not think about it at first and it is only once they start to look at it cumulatively over time that they realize it is having an impact on their bank balance.

Another Great Article by Jordan

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Owning a dog is a rewarding experience, but it can be expensive. In just their first year of life, owning a dog can cost anywhere between $1400 to $2000. Between food, toys, treats, vet bills, medication, grooming, and whatever else comes up, owning a dog can be pricey.

The first year of a dog’s life is pretty expensive, and you can count on the cost to decrease from that point forward. Nevertheless, owning a dog will still cost a couple of hundred dollars per year. For many, that can take up a sizable chunk of their annual budget.

Thankfully, there are ways to cut down on costs. Everyone loves to save money when they can and saving money as a dog owner is not a far-fetched idea. Here are 8 ideas to save money as a dog owner.

1. Make Dog Treats at Home

Making your own dog treats can be easy and is a great way to save some money as a dog owner. You don’t have to be a great cook or baker when it comes to making your own dog treats. Your pup likely will not mind if you are not a master chef.

Making dog treats often involves some inexpensive ingredients and your oven. For example, you can make some baked chickpeas by simply putting some chickpeas in a pan and baked them in the oven. A cursory search online can lead you to endless do it yourself dog treats.

2. Start Grooming at Home

Grooming can be a large yearly expense if you have a long-haired dog breed. That cost can soar if you have a long-haired and large dog. In fact, grooming for long-haired dogs can cost an owner $265 for small dogs, $320 for medium-sized dogs, and as much as $408 for a large breed. By learning how to groom your dog at home, you can save a lot of money.

Grooming at home will often have to start with some research. Certain dog breeds have some special requirements for grooming and others do not. In general, most dogs need regular baths with a nice brushing either before or after. Taking care of your pup’s coat can almost entirely remove grooming costs.

3. Make Your Own Dog Toys

Although the cost of dog toys per year is not much, you can still save money by making your own dog toys. If your dog is a chewer and loves to rip apart any new toy that you give him, you can end up saving a pretty penny. Here are some of the many different dog toys that you can make at home:

  • T-Shirt Rope Toys
  • Ball Tug Toys
  • Plastic Bottle Dog Toys
  • Rope Tug Toys
  • A Muffin Tin Puzzle

There are a seemingly endless number of different dog toys that you can make at home. This can help you cut your costs by $40-$100 a year. Talk about some great savings.

4. Make Sure Your Dog Gets Enough Exercise

It might not seem like it but making sure that your dog gets enough exercise can actually be a money saver. Having a dog that is in shape is more of a preventative measure against future expenses. Not to mention that exercising your dog can be as easy and inexpensive as a walk around the neighborhood.

By regularly and sufficiently exercising your pup, you can reduce the likelihood that you will be met with costly vet bills in the future. Sufficient exercise can protect against your dog developing disorders such as obesity or excessive chewing. It pays to have an in shape dog.

5. Supplement Your Pups Meals

You can either make your own dog food entirely or help supplement your pup’s meals to make sure that they are well-rounded. By supplementing your dog’s food with fresh and healthy ingredients, you can better nourish your pup. Often, these healthy ingredients are cost-effective.

Supplementing your dog’s food is another sort of preventative measure to save money against future vet bills. Feeding your dog high-quality food will strengthen his immune system and can help prevent him from becoming overweight.

6. Brush Your Dog’s Teeth

Did you know that the vast majority of dogs suffer from periodontal disease? Periodontal disease can cause complications such as heart, kidney, and liver issues. That is why taking care of your dog’s teeth can save you money. Not to mention that you save money from getting a professional cleaning done on your dog’s pearly whites.

7. Shop After the Holidays

If you are looking to save money as a dog owner, then you are probably already keeping an eye out for sales. Lucky for you, at least once a year there are large sales all across the country. If you are in the market for any dog-related needs, try shopping after the holidays.

Skipping the holiday rush can save you a lot of money. Often, retailers are looking to get rid of their holiday stock before the stock for the new year comes in. This makes shopping after the holidays the perfect time to stock up on the things you need for your dog.

8. Make Your Own Dog Bed

Dog beds can be expensive, but you always want to make sure that your pup has a comfortable place to sleep. Making your own dog bed can be done without any serious sewing skills. In fact, you can find instructions on making your own dog bed that requires no sewing whatsoever! Check online to find an easy DIY dog bed to start saving money.

More Money-Saving Tips for Dog Owners

Saving money as a dog owner can require a bit of extra work, but it does not have to. You can try to cover as many bases as possible with an all in one money-saving option. That might seem like a far fetched idea, but it is a reality. If your dog suffers from anxiety, joint pain, or stress, then you can try giving him CBD treats.

CBD is a naturally sourced substance that has been shown to be an effective treatment for stress, anxiety, joint pain, and some neurological disorders. Not to mention that you can buy CBD treats that are packed with all-natural ingredients and nutrients like FOMO Bones’ CBD Dog Treats. Try CBD treats today to reap the many benefits.

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