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Another Great Article By Ralph

Introduction: To Woof, Or Not to Woof?

1.Introduction To Woof, Or Not To Woof

Unlike this age-old question, puppy training is something that shouldn’t be up for debate.

I might be older and wiser myself, but I’m sure my owners will remember a time when I was less well behaved. That’s because, just like me, all puppies need proper training in order to become fully-fledged members of your home.

We can’t help being playful and a little bit mischievous sometimes, which is why we need your help to learn how we can be the best companions possible.

My humans put a lot of effort into my training when I was younger, and now they tell me I’m a good boy all the time! It’s the best!

It can sometimes take a bit of patience (and a lot of treats), and training is a continual learning curve for both you and your pup, but it’s worth it for the end results.

And I’m not just saying that because I’m biased towards treats, I paw-omise.

Take it from me when I say a trained dog is a much happier, safer dog. Sometimes when I’m too excited or if I’m on the trail of a nearby squirrel, I don’t always pay the best attention to the dangers around me.

My humans made sure I learned that if I’m told to come here or if I hear a sharp toot on my whistle then I must go back to them, that way I don’t run off too far and get myself into trouble.

For this and many other reasons which I’m about to go into, puppy training is an essential part of having a canine companion, but there’s a whole treat bag of information out there to wade through.

You know, those things that always have treats inside when you go for walkies? And they never seem to run out?

That’s what it’s like trying to navigate tips for puppy training when you’re a human, and with that much advice available, it can get a little confusing without expert help.

So, why not hear it from the dog’s mouth directly? Here’s my complete guide to training your puppy.

Why is it Important to Train Your Dog?

Safety First

As I mentioned in the introduction, a well-trained dog is a safe dog. You’ll be able to prevent your pooch from getting themselves into trouble or potentially dangerous situations if you can feel confident that they’ll listen to you when it’s most important.

This is one of the key reasons why puppy training is so essential, as an untrained dog is more likely to end up injuring themselves or getting lost because they cannot follow instructions.

If the situation calls for it and if you need to recall your dog, for example, them being well-trained enough to return could be the difference between bounding back into your arms and chasing the birds out onto a busy road.

Easy Life

If you’re after an easy life… are you sure a puppy is the right choice of pet for you? I’m only (half) kidding.

While puppies are a huge commitment, establishing a regular training routine will encourage good habits and make life as a pet-parent much easier down the line.

Your dog will learn to avoid doing the things it shouldn’t, meaning you don’t have to deal with the consequences of their latest oopsie.

You’ll spend less time clearing up after your puppy and more time playing with them and enjoying their company.

A Trained Dog Equals a Tidy Home

Not only can you keep your dog from misbehaving by training them to listen to commands that will get them to stop displaying negative behavior, but the mental stimulation they receive during training will keep them from acting out and destroying things around your home out of boredom

No more coming downstairs to bits of rubbish strewn all over your kitchen, a freshly chewed up pair of kicks, or to another accident on your recently cleaned cream carpet.

Bonding Time

Time spent training with your new puppy is also a great way to bond with them and will help to build a loving, affectionate relationship between the two of you.

Sadly, too many humans will let training slide after their puppy has learned the basic training commands.

A large part of training is actually based on building a rapport with your dog so that you can understand each other. You’ll have a better relationship and a better chance at successfully training them to follow instructions.

From the Beginning: What Should You Teach First?

3.From The Beginning What Should You Teach First

Most people assume that puppy training begins from the moment your new pooch comes home, but it’s actually the first six to eight weeks of a dog’s life that are the most critical in terms of their development.

This is before they’re allowed to be taken to their forever home which usually happens at seven to twelve weeks, and it’s just one of the reasons why it’s so important to do thorough research on the breeder before deciding where to get your furry friend from.

In order to give them a good start in life, the best and most reputable breeders will start socializing and handling puppies from birth.

Not only does this provide the foundations for you to continue puppy training at home, but it also helps to ensure that your pup is well equipped to emotionally and physiologically handle being in different environments.

The more your pooch is exposed to at a young age, the less scared or nervous they will be around new things as they get older, making it easier to train with them.

As with anything, it’s always best to begin with the basics. Once you’ve got a few of these key commands down, you’ll be able to confidently move onto some of the tricks that are trickier to master.

Sit, lie down, stay, and leave, are a great place to start.

Given the short attention span of most puppies, it’s unlikely you’ll be able to put in long sessions of training before your pup gets distracted, but they should be able to learn the basics as early as 8 weeks old as these are simple instructions that you can incorporate into your dog’s daily routine.

Another high priority on your training checklist should be house training and teaching your puppy to eliminate in the designated area.

This neatly brings us onto the first topic in our next section where I’ll be covering some specific areas of training in more detail. Get ready to talk toilets!

Dog Training 101: Your Guide to a Well-Trained Dog

4.Dog Training 101 Your Guide To A Well-Trained Dog

House/Crate Training: Where to Eliminate

1.House Crate Training Where To EliminateOne of the first things that people like to master when training a new puppy is toilet training.

Your pooch may be cute but stepping in poop is definitely not.

Accidents will happen, so you might want to hold off on getting that new rug for now, because there’s probably going to be a few indoor doo-doos on the way to becoming house trained.

Fear not though! Your house won’t be a minefield forever as there are a number of ways to encourage your dog to eliminate in the right place.

Crate Training

Ever heard the saying, ‘don’t go where you eat’? The same can be said for your puppy and their sleeping arrangements, as dogs are naturally inclined to avoid this area when it comes to toilet time.

As a result, crate training can be used hand in hand with toilet training as it provides a safe space that will typically remain a tinkle-free zone.

This makes it the perfect place for your puppy to spend time while you pop out or if you’re unable to watch them closely, and it will help to reduce the number of accidents.

Not all people will choose to crate train, but if used properly to create a safe environment where your puppy can go to rest, they can be an invaluable tool in toilet training.

  • Choose the correct size crate
  • Fill it with blankets and your puppy’s favorite toys so they know it’s a safe space
  • Reward your puppy with treats when they’re inside the crate
  • Take your puppy outside as soon as you let them out of the crate

Puppy Pads

The great puppy pad debate is one that sees dog-owners divided, with some believing that puppy pads are a house training essential and others that they’re a pointless addition to an already new routine.

I tend to agree with the latter view of puppy pads, as introducing too many options at once may confuse your puppy making it harder for them to know where to go. However, if you are choosing to use them, make sure to adhere to the following:

  • Place the puppy pad near the door (this will make it easier to eventually transition to eliminating outside exclusively) and don’t move it around the house
  • Take your puppy to the pad as soon as you see any signs that suggest they need to use it.
  • Reward your puppy with treats when they use the puppy pad

Outside

The first rule of training your puppy to eliminate outside is: when in doubt, let them out. Seriously.

If your dog is having to hold it up until the point when they’re bursting to go then there’s going to be far more accidents than if they’re allowed outside to relieve themselves at regular intervals.

Frequency is key.

It will vary slightly depending on the size and breed, but the general rule is that for every month of your puppy’s life they can cross their little legs for an additional hour.

They should also be allowed out in the 30 minutes after they finish eating or 10 minutes if they’ve had a drink of water.

Another tip is to avoid dithering by the door once you’ve let your dog out of their crate (if using one). In the moments you spend searching for your slippers, your puppy could leave you a hasty surprise by the time you turn back around.

Keep to a regular routine including the times they’re fed, as this will help develop a consistent schedule which will help your puppy learn when and where they should go.

Supervise your puppy more than usual while you’re housetraining so you can spot the signs when they should go outside.

Give your puppy plenty of verbal praise while they’re going about their business and have a tasty treat to hand when they come back inside so they associate eliminating outside with a reward.

It might be natural to you, but your puppy will have to learn that they’re supposed to go outside so be patient and don’t punish them when they have an accident indoors.

Leash Training: How to Walk Effectively

2.Leash Training How To Walk EffectivelyDogs love to stop and smell the roses, the bushes, and other dog’s butts, but if they’re allowed to pause and sniff every lamppost they pass, it’ll take you an hour to complete what should be a quick circle around the block.

Leash training can help your dog walk nicely beside you at your heel.

In addition to being a legal requirement in some areas at the risk of a fine for non-compliance, leash training is also sometimes essential for the safety of your puppy.

For example, when you’re near the main road or an area with busy traffic, a lead can prevent them from running out in front of cars.

Sometimes your puppy will flat-out refuse to budge, and they’ll park their butt on the sidewalk in an act of rebellious defiance.

As frustrating as this may be, especially on days when you’ve ventured out in the wind and rain, never drag or forcefully pull your dog along after you on their leash.

If your puppy is showing a real aversion to walking with a leash, consider changing their collar to a harness, or vice versa, as they may be feeling uncomfortable.

For particularly problematic pooches, you may benefit from a head harness or head collar which makes it easier to control their movement. However, this should only be a temporary training aid.

Seeing as this will be an unavoidable part of your dog’s training and indeed, general life, it’s important to get this right so your puppy doesn’t grow up with a fear of using a lead, as this could cause them to act out when you’re walking.

Here are some tips for helping your puppy to feel comfortable with their leash:

  • Introduce the leash and let your puppy investigate by having a good sniff.
  • Don’t let them chew it! Bad habits are hard to break and this is not a toy.
  • Attach the leash indoors so that the puppy can get used to the weight and feel of it.
  • Keep it loose and don’t correct your pup or pull on the leash while they become comfortable with you holding it.
  • Try to create a positive experience by giving lots of treats and praise.

Once your puppy is comfortable with a leash, you can begin building up to your first outdoor walk.

You still need to take it one step at a time, but here’s my advice on how to teach your dog to walk effectively alongside you without stopping or pulling.

  1. Standing still, let the leash go slack and wait for your puppy to look up or pay you attention. The moment they do, give them a treat.
  2. You can now begin to walk, praising your puppy with frequent treats and verbal encouragement as they stay close to you.
  3. If the leash becomes tight or if your puppy starts to pull away, stop walking. This will teach them that pulling on their leash will get them nowhere. Quietly wait for them to turn their attention back to you, and when they move closer again, reward your puppy and set off while they’re still your heel. Repeat this step every time your dog pulls the leash too tightly.
  4. It can be a good idea to practice this indoors at first, as when you move to outdoor walks there will be a whole lot more to distract your puppy and pull them away from you.

It’s good to remember that dogs are at their most curious when they’re a puppy, so make sure you allow them to stop and investigate every now and then.

They might be sniffing out a good area to do their business, and I’m pretty sure you wouldn’t appreciate being yanked off the toilet, so don’t yank your dog’s leash either.

Plays Well with Others: Socializing with Other Dogs

3.Plays Well With Others Socializing With Other DogsNobody wants to see their puppy being left out at the local park because they didn’t learn how to play nicely when they were younger.

Puppies experience a socialization period that lasts between when they’re seven to up to sixteen weeks old, during which they’re at their most adventurous, inquisitory, and exploratory, so you should aim to introduce them to as many new people and experiences as possible.

They’re much more open to interacting with other people and dogs at this stage in their life, so it’s important to make sure that these experiences are all fun and enjoyable as this helps to create a positive attitude that will stay with your dog as they grow up, resulting in fewer fears or phobias.

It’s natural for this period to be followed by one in which your puppy acts more tentative and wary but provided you don’t force them into situations that frighten or overwhelm them, it should be a phase that your dog will grow out of.

Your puppy will receive an initial vaccination at eight to ten weeks and should have a second two to four weeks later. Until they’ve been fully vaccinated, avoid contact with other dogs unless you know they’re also protected by the vaccination

Meeting outside is advisable if you’re introducing two dogs for the first time as there’s plenty of space to become more comfortable around each other. It’s also where your puppy will have the most interaction with dogs they don’t know.

  1. Try to schedule your first few trips to the park during quieter times. If there are too many other dogs around your puppy may end up feeling overwhelmed.
  2. Always reinforce positive social behavior by rewarding your puppy with treats and affection when they interact nicely with another dog so they’ll remember it as a pleasant experience.
  3. Do exercise caution, especially if you don’t know the other dog, but remain calm even if your puppy is behaving slightly skittishly.
  4. Recognize when your puppy is showing genuine signs of distress or discomfort and don’t force them. This includes hiding behind you, whimpering, trying to jump up, and holding their tail between their legs.

Introducing two dogs in the home can be slightly trickier, especially if one dog lives there as their scent will be all over the house and they’re more likely to act territorially.

The same principles as above should be applied but you should also give both dogs lots of attention to avoid any jealousy.

Puppy training classes are another great way to socialize your dog because they’ll be around other pups their own age.

This is less intimidating for your puppy than meeting dogs who are bigger and older than they are at the local park.

Clicker Training: Reacting to Sounds

4.Clicker Training Reacting To SoundsTraining in a large, open space where your dog is free to run far and wide can sometimes make it difficult for them to hear your voice across the distance between you.

Clicker training is a great way to bridge this gap and it’s a clearer method of positive reinforcement.

 

In the earlier stages of your training journey, it’s important to ensure that the rewards are strong and frequently given.

This is especially true for clicker training as the whole idea of it is based on repetitive positive reinforcement or operant conditioning as it’s technically known.

My top tip would be to choose treats that are smaller, less unhealthy, and definitely less expensive as you’re likely to get through quite a few of them while you practice your puppy’s clicker training.

  1. Puppy, Meet Clicker

To introduce your puppy to the clicker, first, find a quiet area in which to practice. Press the clicker and immediately give your dog a treat.

Do this again anywhere between five and ten times to encourage the association between the click and the reward.

  1. Testing, Testing?

Next, you’ll need to see if your dog is picking up on what you’re trying to teach them. When your puppy is not focused on you, press the clicker and watch to see if your dog registers it.

If they look up at you expectantly then you’ll know it’s working, but if your puppy ignores you then keep repeating the click and reward combination until they’ve made the connection.

  1. It’s All About Accuracy

It’s really important to make sure you only click at the precise moment your dog correctly follows a given command, which should be immediately followed with the reward and verbal praise.

Getting trigger happy with the button and clicking at the wrong time will cause confusion over why your dog is being rewarded, and it’ll take longer for them to learn what they need to do next time.

  1. Clickety Clack (Don’t Talk Back)

You can use the clicker tool for both basic commands and more advanced training purposes, making it a versatile choice of training aid.

Some people even progress all the way to hands-free commands where you phase out the hand gestures typically used alongside the verbal instruction.

However, if your puppy is not particularly treat-motivated, this will be a less effective training method and you certainly won’t be able to rely on it for advanced commands.

Commands and Instructions: Working with Your Dog

5.Commands & Instructions Working With Your DogIf you’ve ever seen a dog walking by with their owner, side-by-side without a lead insight, and thought to yourself, “how did they ever train their dog that well?” just remember that they will have started off with the same basic commands and instructions that we all do.

It’s not all about how hard the dog works though, and as the human, you’ll have to work just as hard (if not harder!) during training to keep the session running smoothly.

It’s your job to clearly speak instructions and to avoid hand gestures that will confuse your dog. Ultimately, your puppy will want to please you, so work with them by committing to their training.

Try to limit the number of times you repeat yourself before your puppy performs the given command, as otherwise they’ll grow used to hearing it repeated and won’t always react to the first instruction which can cause a potentially dangerous delayed response.

Reward your puppy with tasty treats when they do what you ask as this will associate the instruction with positive reinforcement.

Secondary reinforcement is considered to be any sign of affection, such as a gentle pat on the head, and always remember to give verbal praise to your puppy as well.

If you’re struggling with a particular training exercise, make sure to have a few particularly delicious treats on you for extra encouragement. Chicken or beef chopped up into small bites are my favorites for an extra ‘wowzer’ treat.

It can also be a good idea to schedule training sessions just before a meal when your puppy will be hungry and more receptive to instruction in order to earn their treats.

Remember that your puppy will need to learn the command as well as the action that goes with it, so say the word to go with it when they move into each position correctly.

With enough practice, you can eventually replace the treat entirely with the command, and the action will immediately follow.

With these general hints and tips in mind, here’s how to teach your puppy some of the basic commands we’ve discussed. The rest of the essentials are covered in ‘Advanced Training’ due to their higher level of difficulty.

Sit

Sit is a great instruction that will help in a number of situations. Whether you’re putting your puppy’s harness on ready for a walk or brushing their fur, the sit command will force your pup to pause for a moment.

It also provides the foundation point for more advanced instructions.

  1. When your puppy is standing, hold a treat close to their nose and raise your hand in an overarching motion.
  2. Their head will tilt upwards as their eyes follow the treat which will naturally cause their bottom to drop down to the floor into a sitting position.
  3. Once they’re sitting, praise your puppy and reward them with the treat.

Lie Down

Lie down can be used to encourage your dog to settle, for example, when you’re eating dinner or watching TV and you’d rather they weren’t fussing around you.

Never push your puppy or force them into a lying down position, as you might scare them when they’re only trying to learn.

  1. You’ll need to have cracked ‘sit’ before you tackle ‘lie down’, as this is the position your puppy should start in.
  2. From their nose, guide the treat downwards past your puppy’s chest until your hand reaches the floor.
  3. Your dog will (or at least, should) follow the direction of your hand until they too are on the floor, stretched and lying down. Immediately praise and give the treat.

Stay

Much like using ‘sit’, asking your dog to stay will come in handy when you need your puppy to remain in one spot.

If you’re leaving your house, asking your puppy to stay will ensure they don’t get close enough to escape as you open the door.

  1. Again, begin by asking your dog to sit.
  2. Hold the palm of your hand up facing towards the dog and tell them to stay.
  3. Maintaining eye-contact, move backward a few steps. Start off small, but over time you can gradually widen the gap between you to test your puppy’s restraint.
  4. If they stay put, praise and reward them straight away.

Wrapping it Up: Proofing Your Dog’s Behavior

6.Wrapping It Up Proofing Your Dog’s BehaviourNow you’ve worked your way through all the key commands, it’s time to put your puppy to the test by proofing their behavior.

This is when you practice what your dog has learned in a new environment to ensure that they can still perform the command when there are other distractions around them.

It’s the final step in your dog’s journey, and once you’ve proofed and mastered each of the most important instructions, you’ll be able to be confident that your puppy is well-trained enough to listen to you and follow commands in pretty much any situation.

Prior to moving onto this part of your puppy’s training, you must make sure they already have a good understanding of the command you’re going to be practicing.

If they’re able to perform the action instantly when asked and show no confusion between instructions, you should be good to go.

When you’re proofing your puppy’s behavior, it’s not a good idea to overwhelm them by throwing them into a busy environment with multiple different distractions.

Instead, limit the variable thing one at a time to help your pup adjust, as this way they’ll learn to follow the commands much faster.

As with every stage of training, be generous with rewards, and continuously praise your puppy as they achieve each goal you set.

At the same time, try to be realistic and don’t allow your dog to become frustrated by a lack of progress that’s due to your overly high expectations.

Finally, don’t forget that you need proofing too! Try asking a friend to join you for your next training session and get them to give the command to your puppy so they can learn to take instruction from different people.

This will be invaluable if you’re ever away and someone else is dog-sitting for you.

Bonus: Advanced Dog Training

7.Bonus Advanced Dog TrainingOnce you’ve mastered the basic instructions, these provide the basis for a whole range of more difficult commands and tricks that you may want to teach your dog.

You can also teach them some of the less essential but more fun tricks, which you can continue to do throughout their life for quality time together and mental stimulation.

Come

Recall is one of the more difficult parts of training to master, and it can be quite anxiety-inducing for owners to let their puppy off the leash as they progress.

If you’re in the early stages of practicing recall and you’re feeling a little nervous about being able to entice your suddenly liberated puppy back to you, it’s time to crack out those wowzer treats I mentioned earlier.

  1. Have your extra tasty treats at the ready, or a favorite toy would also work instead. Make sure your puppy has seen these.
  2. Back up a few steps, keeping the distance minimal at first, and call your dog to you. This is best done with a light, friendly tone, or you can drop low and spread your arms open wide to encourage your dog to return.
  3. When your puppy reaches you, reward them with the treat or toy.
  4. Over time and with practice, you’ll be able to gradually make the gap between you wider until your dog will come running towards you across an entire field or from a different room.
  5. Top Tip: This is a part of the training that benefits from having a second person, as you can call your puppy between you.
  6. Another way to alleviate some of the stress of practicing recall with your puppy outdoors is to use a training lead, as this gives them a lot more freedom so they can get used to longer distances without giving them the chance to run off entirely.

Leave

Curiosity killed the cat but teaching your dog to ‘leave’ will prevent them from eating something potentially poisonous or harmful which can result in an upset stomach.

It’s one of the trickier commands as it requires a lot of restraint on your dog’s part, especially if they’ve found something particularly interesting.

You’d be surprised at what dogs will happily put in their mouths at their own detriment, so it’s worth persevering with. Besides, it might be the only way to save your favorite book from destruction if they get their paws on it!

  1. Hold a treat in both hands.
  2. Wrap one of your hands around the treat to create a fist and ask your dog to “leave it.”
  3. Pay no attention while they attempt to retrieve the treat from your grasp.
  4. When your puppy has ceased trying, reward them with the treat from the other hand, and give plenty of praise.
  5. Repeat this until your dog will obediently leave your enclosed hand alone when asked

Once you’ve nailed down the basic principle, you can progress to teaching your puppy to leave treats that are on the ground which is the more challenging part.

  1. Again, have two treats ready, but this time have a plain treat and a treat that’s especially mouthwatering.
  2. Place the plain treat on the floor and place your hand over the top., asking your puppy to “leave it” at the same time.
  3. When their focus is on you and they’re ignoring the treat, reward them with the extra tasty treat and give lots of attention and praise. Then repeat!
  4. As your dog gets better at this, you can remove your hand from the treat and ask them to leave. Once you’re happy, try standing up completely. Eventually, you’ll be able to give this command and take several steps back, or even leave the room completely, with the confidence that your dog won’t touch the treat until they’re given permission to take it.

Conclusion: A Well-Trained Dog!

5.Conclusion A Well Trained Dog!

Just like owning a dog in general, training isn’t something you can commit to for six months and then give up on when the novelty wears off.

Training is a life-long process where you and your dog will be continuously learning and improving, rather than a quick-fix behavioral crash-course.

It’s difficult to encapsulate absolutely everything you need to know about puppy training in a single place, but I hope I’ve provided a comprehensive enough guide to get you well underway on your puppy training journey.

Finally, remember to be patient with your puppy while they’re still learning. Dogs are another furry member of your family, so giving them lots of love and affection while you’re training will teach them to be loving and affectionate in return.

We’re not called man’s best friend for nothing!

Another Great Article by Dana Scott

Sleeping dog dreaming about Organ Meats
If you feed your dog a raw diet, you might be making the same mistake as everyone else …

… you’re likely getting the organ meats wrong!  And, as you’ll find out, your dog will miss out on important health benefits if you get the organ meats wrong.

So let’s take a closer look at organ meats for the raw fed dog, which ones you should feed and how much you should feed.

The two primary questions dog owners have about organ meats are:

  1. Which organs should dogs eat?
  2. How much organ meat should dogs get?

Both are important questions, but let’s start with the amount of organ meat …

How Much Organ Meat Should Be In The Raw Diet?

 

Most raw feeders follow the 80-10-10 guideline … 80% muscle meat, 10% bone and 10% organ meat. They call this diet “prey model” or “species appropriate.” The assumption is that this mimics what dogs would eat in the wild if they were to eat wild prey.

But this just isn’t true …

Muscle accounts for about 50% of most wild animals, while bone would account for about 12%. Of course, this would vary with the type, sex and condition of the animal. Skin would account for about 16%.

This means most animals are about 25% organ meat by weight.

So if your goal is 10% organ meat, your dog is missing out on 15% of his diet … and it’s an important 15%. Look at this …

Table showing vitamins in organ meats

 

This table compares the vitamins in a few organ meats vs muscle meats. You can see that, across the board, organs are more nutrient dense than meats.

It’s true … the organs are Mother Nature’s multivitamins!

But there’s something else I want you to note … each organ is unique in its nutritional composition. Liver is high in retinol (or vitamin A), and folate but not all that high in niacin or vitamin E. Heart is rich in thiamin. Now let’s look at the mineral content of organ meats …

Table showing minerals in organs meats

 

Organ meats are much richer in minerals and trace minerals than muscle meat too. And again, each organ is different. Heart and kidney are rich in zinc while liver is rich in copper.

Pound for pound, organs are much more nutritious than muscle meat. This is why most wild carnivores eat the organs first … they’re the most valuable part of the carcass.

If you feed 10% organ meat, your dog is missing out on more than half the organ meats Mother Nature wants him to eat.

So how much organ meat should your dog get?

I’d say a lot more than 10% … more like 25%. But if you’re feeding more than 10% organ meat, you need a large variety of organs, not just liver.

Which leads us to question #1, “which organ meats should dogs eat?” And the simple answer is, all of them!

Which Organ Meats Should Be In The Raw Diet?

Not only are organ meats more nutritious, they carry other important health benefits. Let’s look at the brain as an example.

This table compares brain to fish. And what’s most interesting is the DHA content.

Table comparing the mineral count of Mackerel vs beef brain

 

DHA (Docosahexaenoic acid) is an important omega-3 fatty acid that fights inflammation. Most dog owners add fish oil to their dogs’ meals because it’s super rich in DHA. Not only is brain much richer in minerals than fish, it contains nearly as much DHA.

Did you catch that?

If you fed your dog all the organs in the animal, you wouldn’t have to supplement with fish oil. You wouldn’t need to fill those nutritional gaps with a heated and processed product.

DHA is also super important for brain health. Its presence in the diet can make puppies smarter and improve cognition in older dogs.

But DHA isn’t found in any real amount in liver or most other organs. Except for these little organs …

Glandular Therapy

Feeding your dog eyes can be super gross. But eyes are also rich in DHA, just like brain. And if nothing else, it’s fun to have a freezer full of eyeballs for when company comes over!

Now if you were to Google research on the benefits of DHA, you’d find that it’s good for the brain, nervous system and eyes. Is it a coincidence that the brain and eyes are rich in a nutrient that helps them function?

Probably not …

In fact, this is the entire concept behind glandular therapy. Eating brain helps your dog’s brain and eating eyes helps your dog’s eyes.

This isn’t a novel concept. We’ve been using chondroitin for years to support joint and soft tissue health … and chondroitin comes from joint cartilage. So does hyaluronic acid.

So if you want your dog’s joints to be healthy, feed him joints. If you want your dog to have a healthy heart, feed him heart.

Get the idea?

Glands For Glands

If you only feed your dog liver and a couple of other organs that happen to be on sale, he’s missing out. The presences or absence of glands and hormones will impact your dog’s hormones.

Here are some glands that are an important part of your dog’s hormonal (endocrine) system:

  • Adrenal (sits on top of the kidneys and regulates stress and metabolism)
  • Thyroid (located in the neck, it stores and produces most hormones in the body)
  • Parathyroid (located in the neck and controls calcium levels)
  • Pituitary (part of the brain and controls adrenals and other glands)
  • Hypothalamus (part of the brain that links the pituitary to the nervous system)
  • Ovaries (produce the female reproductive hormones)
  • Testes (produce the male reproductive hormones)
  • Pineal (located in the brain, it affects sleep and seasonal cycles)
  • Pancreas (a critical organ that produces insulin and enzymes)

What About The Rest Of The Organs?

Let’s take another look at the ratio of meat, bone and organs in most animals.

  • Muscle 50%
  • Skin 16%
  • Bone 12%
  • Intestines 10%
  • Lungs 3%
  • Liver 2%
  • Brain 2%
  • Heart 1%
  • Kidneys 0.5%
  • Spleen <0.5%
  • Pancreas <0.5%
  • Eyes <0.5%
  • Testicles <0.5%
  • Prostate <0.5%
  • Uterus <0.5%
  • Ovaries <0.5%

While most glands and organs make up a small percentage of the animal’s weight, the tiny thyroid can have a big impact on health and hormone function. So don’t rule organs out based on size. And remember, organs make up about 25% of the animal by weight, not 10%.

That means your job is to find as many organs as possible and feed them as 25% of your dog’s diet. But how do you find glands and organs?

Sourcing Organ Meats

If you have a local abattoir or slaughterhouse, get to know them. Most organs don’t make it to your local butcher, but you’ll get good deals if you go right to the slaughterhouse.

I can buy brain, eyeballs, spleen, pancreas, kidney, liver, heart, lung … and I take it all home and grind it up in my grinder so it’s all mixed up and ready to go.

I buy the organs in the same percentages I’d find in a whole carcass, grind them and put them in containers. Then I add the organ mix to my dogs’ meals daily to make up 25% of their diet.

If you can’t find an abattoir in your area, fish can be your friend.

Fish is rich in vitamin D and minerals and in DHA. For many raw feeders, fish is the only way to get all of the organs and glands into your dog. Add an ounce of fish for every pound of raw food if you can only source one or two organs.

Finally, you can add freeze-dried organs and glands to your dog’s meals. These come pre-made and easy to serve … but make sure any organs you feed are from grass-fed animals.

There are micronutrients in foods we just don’t know about yet … and the more we look at organ meats, the more benefits we’ll discover. Nutrition goes far beyond AAFCO, vitamins and minerals!

It’s true … no guts, no glory!

I hope you’ll find a way to get more organ meat into your dog’s raw diet.

A great Article by  Your Dog Advisor Staff

When you hear the word “mange,” you automatically think of stray dogs with scabby skin. What you may not realize, though, is that any dog can get mange, even the ones that stay indoors most of the time.

1. Dog with Mange

Mange may look bad, but fortunately it is a treatable condition. While vet-prescribed medication should be your first course of action, there are multiple natural ways you can treat it at home. What is the best home remedy for dog mange, you ask? In this post we will explore seven safe home remedies you can try.

Dog mange is a skin condition caused by parasites. These parasites (mites, in this case) do everything from bite and irritate a dog’s skin to laying their eggs just under its surface. There are two main types of mange, and both are serious in different ways. Which type is present is the main factor in choosing the best home remedy for dog mange in your own case.

Demodectic Mange
Demodex or demodectic mange can be present from a few days after birth. The mites that cause it are usually just an innocuous part of the makeup of a dog’s skin, and are passed on to puppies from their mothers.

Typically, if a dog has this type of mange, you would never know. The mites just live inside hair follicles and coexist with the dog in a way that is not harmful to anyone. It only becomes a problem if the dog’s immune system is compromised, which can cause the mite population to explode.

Dogs most at risk for this are dogs who are sick, old, stray, or dogs who have not been properly taken care of. Puppies can also be born with compromised immune systems, leading to juvenile onset demodectic mange. Dogs with diabetes, cancer, or other long-term illnesses also have a higher likelihood of being affected.

Symptoms of this type of mange include:

Hair loss in affected areas (either patches or the entire body)
Scaly, red skin
Skin swelling
Crusty scabs in patches or all over
Sarcoptic Mange
Sarcoptic mange, also referred to as canine scabies, is extremely contagious, even to humans. This type of mange is transmitted when the mites move from one dog to another, and it spreads when the mites dig into the dog’s skin to deposit their eggs, which then hatch and begin to eat the poor dog’s skin.

Dog owners usually notice the symptoms of scabies in areas that don’t typically have a lot of hair, such as the elbows and ears, although it may also be noticeable on the chest and belly. Some of the symptoms to look out for are:

Itching
Yellow crusty scabs or sores
Rash and inflammation
Loss of hair
Sores
Infections on the skin caused by yeast or bacteria that get into the sores
Bumps on the skin where mites have buried themselves
When the condition moves into a more advanced stage, you may also notice swollen lymph nodes, thicker skin, and extreme weight loss.

How is Mange Diagnosed?

2. Dog at the Vet

Your veterinarian will do a thorough examination to find out if your dog has mange.

Both types of mange are diagnosed via a skin scraping carried out by a veterinarian, who then checks the scraping under a microscope to see if mites are present.

How is Mange Typically Treated?
Unlike some illnesses that you can treat fully on your own, mange requires a diagnosis from the vet, as well as prompt treatment. The longer you wait, the more mites will grow and thrive, and the worse off your dog will be.

Aside from the best home remedies for dog mange we will explore below, typical treatments include bathing your dog with medicated shampoos and dips, shaving the hair so that the mites have fewer places to hide and grow, special salves and creams applied to the skin, or pills administered orally.

What Is the Best Home Remedy for Dog Mange?
Okay, now that we know all about what causes it and the damage it can cause, what are the best home remedies for dog mange? Here is a look at the top seven:

  1. Benzoyl Peroxide
    If you have ever had an injury yourself, you are probably familiar with benzoyl peroxide’s antibacterial benefits. Shampoos made with benzoyl peroxide can be used to help keep the sores and irritated skin on your dog from becoming infected. While not a home remedy for dog mange per se, it can keep secondary infections and other similar problems at bay.
  2. Olive Oil

3. Olive OIl

Olive oil is one of the best home remedies for dog mange because it is both safe and effective at snuffing out mites.

Olive oil isn’t just good for cooking, it is good for skin problems as well. Dogs with mild mite infestations often find fairly quick relief when their owners apply olive oil to the affected patches of skin. The olive oil helps to smother the mites, killing them off while simultaneously soothing the irritated skin beneath. Plus, olive oil has no known side effects, which means that even if it doesn’t fully fix the problem, it doesn’t exacerbate it either.

  1. Apple Cider Vinegar
    In recent years, apple cider vinegar has been touted as a miracle cure for everything from stomachaches to anxiety. It has also been proven to help skin conditions, although it all depends on how it is administered. Some dog owners find that the best home remedy for dog mange may not be applying apple cider vinegar to the outside of their dog, but administering it orally. Adding two tablespoons of ACV to your dog’s meal once a day gives your dog’s immune system extra strength to fight off the infestation and overcome it.
  2. Lemon and Garlic
    4. Lemons and Garlic
    Lemons and garlic combine to create a formidable weapon in the fight against mange.

This one may not be the “best” home remedy for dog mange if your dog has open sores. Some dog owners, however, say combining vinegar and lemon peels is a very effective way to kill all the mites on a dog’s skin. Simply mix between five and ten average-sized garlic cloves in a half cup of water, along with the cut-up peel of one lemon. After letting the concoction sit overnight, put it in a spray bottle, then spray onto the patches of skin affected by mites.

  1. Aloe Vera
    Looking for something a bit more soothing to heal your pet? Look no further than aloe vera. Aloe vera could be the best home remedy for dog mange overall, because it works in four ways: like olive oil, it can smother the mites, but it also has antiseptic properties, as well as anti-parasitic ones. It is also a known anti-inflammatory, so it calms your dog’s itchy skin so they feel better immediately. Just apply (gently!) twice a day to the affected areas.
  2. Honey
    5. Honey
    Honey is a popular remedy for many things, including dog mange.

Like apple cider vinegar, honey is often advertised as a miracle cure for just about everything, and mange is no exception. Honey has both antibacterial and antifungal properties, which makes it a good defense against infection. The viscosity of the honey also means that it can suffocate the mites on the surface of the skin. The only problem will be that your dog will probably spend all day trying to lick it off!

  1. Yogurt
    Plain yogurt (with no sugar added) is another of the best home remedies for dog mange because dogs can eat yogurt with absolutely no ill effects. In fact, it may even be good for them! Applying yogurt to the affected patches of skin can snuff out mites, and it is possible that the probiotics that make yogurt good for our stomachs may also be good for combatting infections and fungus on your dog’s skin.

Last Thoughts
While these may be some of the best home remedies for dog mange out there, it is still important that you work with your veterinarian to find the right treatment for your dog. Every case is different, and your dog may need a different form of care in order to recover more quickly.

 

Another great article by Michelle Starr.

(Vanessa Van Ryzin, Mindful Motion Photography/Getty Images)
18 DECEMBER 2020

Your dog may be the apple of your eye, but let’s be honest: she is an animal, with her own instincts and idiosyncrasies, and there are going to be times when she makes you want to tear your hair out.

However much you want to, however, new research suggests that you should never yell at or otherwise punish a mischievous mutt.

According to a study released in pre-print last year and now published in PLOS ONE, aversive training such as positive punishment and negative reinforcement can have long-term negative effects on your dog’s mental state.

“Our results show that companion dogs trained with aversive-based methods experienced poorer welfare during training sessions than dogs trained with reward-based methods” the researchers write in their paper.

“Additionally, dogs trained with higher proportions of aversive-based methods experienced poorer welfare outside the training context than dogs trained with reward-based methods. “

This sort of research has been conducted before, and found that aversive training has negative effects, but it’s primarily been on police and laboratory dogs. In addition, the aversive training tends to be shock collar training, which is only one of several tools used.

So, led by biologist Ana Catarina Vieira de Castro of the Universidade do Porto in Portugal, the international team of researchers conducted their new study on companion dogs.

The animals were recruited from a number of training schools in Porto – 42 dogs from three schools that use reward-based training like food treats or play, and 50 dogs from four schools that use aversive-based training, such as yelling, physically manipulating the dog, or leash-jerking. Two of those schools used mild aversive-based training techniques and two were harsher.

Each dog was filmed during the first 15 minutes of three training sessions, and saliva samples were taken to assess stress levels from training – three from each dog relaxing at home to establish baseline levels of stress hormone cortisol, and three from each dog after training.

The researchers also analysed the dogs’ behaviour during training to look for stress behaviours, such as yawning, lip-licking, paw-raising and yelping.

Unsurprisingly, the dogs in the aversive training classes showed elevated stress behaviours, particularly yawning and lip-licking. Their saliva also had significantly increased levels of cortisol compared to when they were relaxing at home.

By contrast, the positive reinforcement dogs were pretty chill – far fewer stress behaviours, and much more normal cortisol levels.

The next step was to assess the longer term effects of this stress. A month after the dogs were assessed at training, 79 of them were then trained to associate a bowl on one side of a room with a sausage snack. If the bowl was on that side, it always held a delicious treat; if located on the other side, the bowl never had the treat. (All bowls were rubbed with sausage to ensure the smell didn’t give the game away.)

Then, the researchers moved the bowls around the room to ambiguous locations to see how quickly the dogs would approach in search of the treat. Higher speed was interpreted to mean the dog was anticipating a mouthful of deliciousness, whereas a slower speed meant the dog was more pessimistic about the bowl’s contents.

Sure enough, the more aversive training a dog had received, the more slowly it approached the bowl. Interestingly, dogs from the reward-based training group actually learnt the bowl location task faster than the aversive-training dogs.

This suggests that reward-based training may actually be more effective, although the researchers suggest this may be because the dogs already understand treat-based training methods. It’s possible that the other group would learn more quickly were an aversive method applied – more research needs to be done to determine this.

Overall, though, the results seem to imply that aversive training doesn’t necessarily have an edge over reward training, and that reward training is much better for your dog’s happiness.

“Critically,” the researchers said, “our study points to the fact that the welfare of companion dogs trained with aversive-based methods is at risk, especially if these are used in high proportions.”

The research has been published in PLOS ONE.

Dangerous Human Foods That Your Dog Shouldn’t Eat – Toxic And Safe Foods For Canines.

Whether you have an indoor or outdoor dog, you can be sure he or she wants to eat what’s on your table. Although I support dogs eating dog food, sometimes some human food is allowed. However, if you don’t want to hurt your four-legged house friend, you might want to be aware of what can and can’t be given.

Some human foods are toxic to dogs. Some of them are okay, but only in moderation. And some can be given completely safely. There are also misconceptions about the topic that are worth clarifying. I will cover all three in this article.

foods dogs can't eat infographic

Dangerous And Toxic Foods For Dogs

beautiful dog

It is better not to give your canine the ones listed below. All of them are dangerous, some can even be fatal. You probably already knew about some, but I tried to gather them all.

Alcohol

Alcohol has a similar effect on dogs as it does on humans. However, dogs tend to tolerate it much worse, for example, because of their size. Under no circumstances should you give your dog alcohol. It can cause diarrhea, vomiting, problems with coordination, breathing problems, and coma.

Almonds

It’s not as dangerous as macadamia nuts, but be careful with almonds too. If not chewed properly, they can block your dog’s esophagus or the windpipe. The salted version is even worse because of the salt content.

Avocado

For many animals, avocados are extremely dangerous. It is most dangerous for birds, and cause death quite often. Dogs tolerate it a little better, but it is not recommended to give it to them either. The problem is caused by persin, which causes vomiting and diarrhea even in small amounts. The avocado’s pit is full of persin, and it’s a choking hazard. Call your veterinarian immediately if your dog has swallowed it.

Cat Food

The composition of cat food is completely different from that of dog food. If your dog consumes it regularly, he may have health problems.

Chocolate

Perhaps this is the best known of the list. Theobromine (methylxanthine) and caffeine in chocolate do not have a good effect on the nervous system and heart rate. Of these two substances, if dogs eat a lot, it can cause vomiting, diarrhea, restlessness, increased urination, tremors, increased heart rate, seizures, and death. The more cocoa the chocolate contains, the more dangerous it is for your puppy. In this article, I covered this topic more detailed.

Cinnamon

While cinnamon is not toxic for dogs, you better omit it from your puppy’s diet. It can irritate the inside of dogs’ mouths so they won’t be able to chew comfortably. It can also lower dogs’ blood sugar too much, which can also cause health problems.

Coffee And Other Caffeinated Beverages

As I mentioned above, caffeine is not good for your dog. It can cause hyperactivity, vomiting, high heart rate and blood pressure, other seizures, and even death.

Cooked Bones

It is worth giving dogs a bone. It is healthy in many ways. It keeps their teeth clean and they get a lot of nutrients from it. However, never give your dog boiled bones. It can be dangerous because it breaks and splinters into small, sharp pieces. It can cut your friend’s mouth or stomach. In addition, it can cause many more health problems. Examples include choking, vomiting, broken teeth.

Corn With The Cob

Corn alone is not dangerous to dogs. However, if you give your dog it along with the cob, that can cause a problem. The danger of suffocation and intestinal obstruction awaits your puppy.

Dairy Products

Some dogs are lactose-intolerant. Listen to the signs, and if that proves to be the case, you should rather not give your puppy dairy products. Lactose can cause diarrhea and other indigestion in susceptible dogs.

Fat Trimming

Although you may think your dog deserves it, do not give him fat trimmings from leftovers. Fat trimmings can cause pancreatitis.

Garlic

Garlic, onions, chives, and leeks are part of the Allium family. However, garlic is five times more toxic than the others I mentioned. It can cause anemia by killing dogs’ red blood cells. A very small amount shouldn’t be a problem. However, pay attention to your dog if he accidentally ate food that contained garlic.

Grapes

Grapes are extremely toxic to dogs. Even a very small amount can harm them. It can cause kidney failure, so by no means give your puppy grapes. Of course, the same goes for raisins. Other symptoms that grapes can cause: vomiting, depression, low energy.

Hops

Although alcohol has already been discussed and hops are almost exclusively in beer, it is worth mentioning. Hops can cause vomiting, increased heart rate, fever, and even death.

Human Vitamins And Medicines

It is no coincidence that there is a separate version of these for dogs. Never give your own supplements or medicine to your dogs. Human supplements can contain amounts of vitamins and minerals that can even lead to an overdose in dogs. Prenatal vitamins, for example, contain dangerous amounts of iron for dogs. Products containing acetaminophen or ibuprofen can also be extremely dangerous for dogs.

Liver

Giving your dog a liver can be a smart idea. It contains many useful nutrients. However, it contains a lot of vitamin A, which in large amounts is not good for your puppy.

Macadamia Nuts

Macadamia nuts are also dangerous. Already a few pieces of it can make your dog sick. Watch for these symptoms: muscle shakes, vomiting, increased temperature, and weak back legs. If your dog eats chocolate that contains macadamia nuts, the situation can be even worse.

Marijuana

My view is that this should not even be an issue. Do not give marijuana to your dog. There is not so much research on the subject. But experience has shown that dogs respond worse to this drug than humans. The most common symptoms are slow response times, dribbling urine, heart rate change, neurological stimulation, hyperactivity, coma, and even death.

Onion, Chives, And Leeks

Although they are not as toxic as garlic, it is better not to give them to your dog. They are dangerous to your little friend in every form.

Peppers

In general, colored peppers are edible for dogs. However, strong versions should be avoided, as should black pepper. Dogs are much less tolerant of these than humans.

Peach, Persimmon And Plum

You also need to pay attention to the quantity of these fruits. If your dog eats a lot of them, that can cause problems in his small intestine. And let’s not forget that peach and plum pits are not only choking hazards but also contain cyanide.

Raw Meat And Fish

Raw meat and fish can contain bacteria that cause food poisoning. And some fish (especially salmon) may be full of parasites that can cause so-called “fish disease” or “salmon poisoning disease”By cooking, however, both fish and meat can be safely given to dogs. However, if you want to give these to your dog raw, make sure you get them from a secure source.

Tomato And Rhubarb Leaves

The edible parts of these plants are not dangerous. However, their green parts contain large amounts of oxalates, which are very toxic to dogs. Oxalates can cause drooling, vomiting, diarrhea, lethargy, weakness, tremors, and bloody urine. Be more careful that if your dog goes to the vegetable garden, he should not eat the tomato along with the green parts.

Salt

Too much salt can also be a problem for humans, and this isn’t different for dogs. Moreover, in many cases they are even more sensitive to it. Too much salt can cause sodium ion poisoning, which can have several serious symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, depression, tremors, increased temperature, seizures, and even death.

Sugar

Too much sugar can lead to dental issues, obesity and even diabetes. Always check the ingredients when you give something to your dog.

Xylitol

This sugar alcohol is found in a lot of sweets. You’re best off not giving your dog anything sweet at all. Or if you do, make sure this substance definitely not in that food. Xylitol is very poisonous for dogs. It can cause blood sugar, seizures, liver failure, and even death.

Yeast

Yeast is not good for dogs for two reasons. On the one hand, it can cause digestive problems in the dog’s belly. It can cause a lot of pain or gas. On the other hand, yeast forms alcohol in the stomach due to fermentation, which in turn can lead to alcohol poisoning.

Safe Food For Dogs From The Table

dog eating from table

Of course, there is a lot of human food that can be safely given to dogs. Since there are far more of these than of the dangerous ones, I won’t list them all, but I’ve gathered quite a few.

Lean Meat

If you remove bone and excess fat from meat, there can be no problem. This also includes too thick fatty skin.

Eggs

Eggs are a great source of protein and contain many valuable nutrients and vitamins for your dog. However, be careful not to serve it raw. This will prevent salmonella infection. Leave the seasoning as well.

Fruits

You can safely give most of your fruit to your dog. Examples of such fruits are:

  • bananas
  • apple slices
  • strawberries
  • blueberries
  • watermelon
  • cantaloupe
  • cranberries
  • mangoes
  • oranges
  • peaches
  • pears
  • pineapples
  • raspberries

If possible, give these to your dog without seeds. This will prevent suffocation or various stomach problems.

Vegetables

Vegetables are very healthy, even for your canine friend. They can even be used as a treat. The following vegetables are safe for dogs:

  • broccoli
  • brussels sprouts
  • carrots
  • celery
  • cucumber
  • green beans
  • peas
  • cooked potatoes
  • spinach
  • sweet potatoes

White Rice

Cooked rice is recommended by many people for dogs who have stomach problems. It solidifies the stool and, along with cooked chicken, feeds the dog properly.

Quinoa

Quinoa is an important ingredient in a lot of dog food. It can be a great alternative to rice, corn, wheat, and soy.

Foods That You Can Give Your Dog In Moderation

There are foods that don’t cause a problem for your puppy, but you still need to pay attention to the quantity.

Cashews And Peanuts

Dogs can eat cashews and peanuts. These are great sources of calcium, magnesium, antioxidants, and protein. However, they are high in calories and fat, so large amounts of them can cause obesity and other problems.

Coconut

The lauric acid in it helps fight bacteria and viruses. It also helps with various skin conditions and bad breath. Do not give the furry outside of the shell to your dog.

Ham

Ham is not the healthiest food, but it is edible for dogs. Although it should not be a regular meal due to the salt it contains.

Misconceptions About Giving Human Foods For Dogs

The internet can be extremely useful as a lot of information is available. However, there are many misconceptions and it is worth separating them from the facts.

Of course, there are also a few misconceptions about the topic of this article. The following foods are rumored to not be given to dogs. However, this is not necessarily true.

Apple Cores And Seeds

Of course, none of us would give our dogs these separately. However, you don’t even have to cut it from the apple.

dog apple

Yes, apple seeds contain cyanide. Virtually every plant contains toxins at some level. If these are below a certain level, your dog will have nothing wrong with it. A medium-sized dog would have to eat about 85 grams of apple seeds completely chewed to make it toxic to him or her.

This means a lot of apples that your dog will definitely not eat at once. Also, if your dog’s liver is working well, the toxins will not accumulate. Apples can be safely eaten with kernels and seeds.

Pork

Surely everyone has heard this “fact” that dogs should not be fed pork. This is usually justified by the following: porks are fatty, eat disgusting things, and contain some mystery component that is toxic for dogs.

Although none of these are really real claims. Pork is less fatty than beefA well-kept pig doesn’t necessarily eat disgusting things. Or if so, why do we humans eat?

There is nothing in the pork that would have any negative effect on our puppy. There is little chance our dog will be allergic to it.

Plenty of manufacturers put pork in their dog food, which could not happen if pork really had a negative effect.

Grains

Of course, many dogs are allergic or sensitive to grains. As sometimes this can happen with meat too. The truth is, your dog can safely eat wheat, corn, soy if it doesn’t cause a problem.

Summary

dog eating vegetable

Although I tried to include everything in the lists, I may have missed something. It is best to do your own research on the topic as well. Or the other one I emphasize every time: Talk to your vet!

The metabolism of animals can be very different from that of humans. That’s why it’s not worth risking just because your puppy looks nice on you. We save the health of our dogs by paying attention to them and giving them what does best for them.


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